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Soil Science and Biochar Characterization

Page history last edited by jay 12 years, 4 months ago

Terra Preta and Biochar History


Pyrolysis and Biochar Production

  • Demirbas, A. (2001). Carbonization ranking of selected biomass for charcoal, liquid and gaseous products. Energy Conversion and Management, 42(10), 1229-1238. doi: 10.1016/S0196-8904(00)00110-2.
  • Haefele, S. M. (2007). Black soil, green rice. RiceToday, 6(2), 27. Retrieved from http://www.irri.org/publications/today/pdfs/6-2/26-27.pdf.
  • Hawkins, B. (2007). Influence of Pyrolysis Conditions on Char Properties . In . Terrigal, New South Wales, Australia : International Agrichar Initiative.
  • Steiner, C. (2006, November 26). Slash and Char as Alternative to Slash and Burn . Universitat Bayreuth. Retrieved from http://www.biochar.org/joomla/images/stories/SteinerPhDSummary.pdf.


Biochar Studies

  • Chan, K. Y., van Zwieten, L., Meszaros, I., Downing, A., & Joseph, S. (2007). Assessing the Agronomic Values of Contrasting Char Materials on an Australian Hard Setting Soil . In . Terrigal, New South Wales, Australia : International Agrichar Initiative.
  • Cheng, C., Lehmann, J., & Engelhard, M. (2008). Natural oxidation of black carbon in soils: changes in molecular form and surface charge along a climosequence. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 72, 1598–1610. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2008.01.010.
  • Gaskin, J. W., Speir, A., Morris, L. M., Ogden, L., Harris, K., Lee, D., et al. (2007). Potential for pyrolysis char to affect soil moisture and nutrient status of a loamy sand soil. In Proceedings of the 2007 Georgia Water Resources Conference. University of Georgia.
  • Glaser, B., Lehmann, J., & Zech, W. (2002). Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal a review. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 35(4), 219-230. Retrieved from http://www.eprida.com/hydro/ecoss/background/Glaser%20et%20al%20(2002)%20BFS.pdf.
  • Laird, D. A. (2008). The Charcoal Vision: A Win Win Win Scenario for Simultaneously Producing Bioenergy, Permanently Sequestering Carbon, while Improving Soil and Water Quality. Agron J, 100(1), 178-181. Retrieved from http://agron.scijournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/agrojnl;100/1/178. (Link Broken) 
  • Lehmann, J. (2007). Bio-energy in the black. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5(7), 381-387. Retrieved from http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/FrontiersEcolEnv%205,%20381-378,%202007%20Lehmann.pdf.
  • Lehmann, J., Cheng, C. H., Nyugen, B., Liang, B., & Smernik, R. (2007). Permanency and Long-Term Changes of Bio-Char in Soil . In . Terrigal, New South Wales, Australia : International Agrichar Initiative.
  • O'Neill, B., Grossman, J. M., Tsai, S. M., Lehmann, J., & Theis, J. E. (2007). Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Amazonian Dark Earths through  Community-Level Molecular Analysis and Identifying Dominant Species in Soils from the Eastern and Central Amazon . In . Terrigal, New South Wales, Australia: International Agrichar Initiative.
  • Ogawa, M., Okimori, Y., & Takahashi, F. (2006). Carbon sequestration by carbonization of biomass and forestation: three case studies. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 11(2), 421―436. doi: 10.1007/s11027-005-9007-4.
  • Overend, R. P., & Milbrandt, A. Tackling Climate Change in the U.S. - Potential Carbon Emissions Reductions from Biomass by 2030. 
  • Skjemstad, J. O., Reicosky, D. C., Wilts, A. R., & McGowan, J. A. (2002). Charcoal Carbon in U.S. Agricultural Soils . Soil Science Society of America Journal, 66, 1249-1255. 
  • Steiner, C., Teixeira, W., Lehmann, J., Nehls, T., de Macêdo, J., Blum, W., et al. (2007). Long term effects of manure, charcoal and mineral fertilization on crop production and fertility on a highly weathered Central Amazonian upland soil. Plant and Soil, 291(1), 275-290. doi: 10.1007/s11104-007-9193-9.
  • Woolf, D. (2008, January). Biochar as a soil amendment: A review of the environmental implications. Retrieved from http://www.orgprints.org/13268/1/Biochar_as_a_soil_amendment_-_a_review.pdf 
  • Yoshizawa, S., Tanaka, S., & Omori, T. (2007). Preservation of Woods in Forest Acid Soil by Addition of Biomass Charcoal . In . Terrigal, New South Wales, Australia : International Agrichar Initiative.

Biochar Properties







Advanced Combustion Research at Stanford University's Global Climate and Energy Project,:  "Coal and Biomass Reactivity" http://gcep.stanford.edu/research/factsheets/char_reactivity.html


Cation Exchange Capacity and Nutrient Retention


Biochar and Soil Microbiology


Soil Properties

  • Batjes, N. H. (2006). ISRIC-WISE  derived soil properties on a 5 by 5 arcminutes global grid (ver. 1.1), ISRIC - World Soil Information. Wageningen. Retrieved from http://www.isric.org.
  • Birkeland, P. (1999). Soils and Geomorphology  (3rd ed., p. 448 p.). Oxford University Press.
  • NSSH Part 618 | NRCS Soils. .USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Retrieved from http://soils.usda.gov/technical/handbook/contents/part618.html#43.


Biochar Recalcitrance and Global Carbon Pools

  • Cole, C. V., Paustian, K., Elliott, E. T., Metherell, A. K., Ojima, D. S., & Parton, W. J. (1993). Analysis of agroecosystem carbon pools. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 70(1), 357-371. doi: 10.1007/BF01105007.
  • Davidson, E. A., & Janssens, I. A. (2006). Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition and feedbacks to climate change. Nature, 440(7081), 165-173. doi: 10.1038/nature04514.
  • Fowles, M. (2007). Black carbon sequestration as an alternative to bioenergy. Biomass and Bioenergy, 31(6), 426-432. doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2007.01.012.
  • Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990-2004. (2006). US Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/downloads06/06_Complete_Report.pdf
  • Lehmann, J., Gaunt, J., & Marco, R. (2006). Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems – a review . Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 11, 403–427. doi: 10.1007/s11027-005-9006-5 .
  • Malhi, Baldocchi, & Jarvis. (1999). The carbon balance of tropical, temperate and boreal forests. Plant, Cell & Environment, 22(6).
  • Preston, C. M., & Schmidt, M. W. I. (2006). Black (pyrogenic) carbon: a synthesis of current knowledge and uncertainties with special consideration of boreal regions. Biogeosciences, 3(4), 397-420. Retrieved from http://www.biogeosciences.net/3/397/2006/.
  • Rice, C. W. (2002, January). Geotimes - January 2002 - Carbon in Soil. Geotimes. Retrieved June 30, 2008, from http://www.agiweb.org/geotimes/jan02/feature_carbon.html.


 Biochar and Agroecosystems 

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